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  • 16 Hour Rule

    There are two pieces of legislation that cover refer to the 16 hour rule.

    The most common reference is in reference to studying or training.  this means that anyone registered unemployed, who is studying or training for more than 2 weeks for more than 16 hours per week is considered unabailable for work (the first condition of Jobseekers Allowance) and therefore not entitiled to benefit.  The person would be defined as a student in this context.

    In separate legislation, full time work is defined by DWP as 16 hours per week for the purposes of claiming out of work benefits.  Anyone working 16 hours or more will be considered in full time work and therefore will lose entitlement to any out of work benefits.

  • Barriers to employment

    This refers to major factors that increase the likelihood of unemployment or prevent an individual from working. These may include (among other things) lone parenthood, disability, ethnicity, age (over 50), mental health, homelessness, or lack of skills.

    Please see the Key Clients section of the website for further information.

  • Case Management

    Case Management is a method of providing a range of services to a client whereby the case worker arranges, co-ordinates, refers and monitors a package of multiple services to meet the individual's specific needs.

    The provision of services may be located within a single organisation but are more likely to involve a number of different organisations, services and projects. With respect to employability this is likely to involve: engaging clients; assessing their needs; producing an action plan; planning and managing appropriate support; review and adapting an action plan or provision of support.

  • City Strategy

    The City Strategy Pathfinders Programme was a DWP initiative which aimed to tackle worklessness in the most disadvantaged communities across the UK. There were 15 pathfinder areas in which partners had committed to pool resources and expertise in order to tackle the area-specific problems which prevented people accessing employment.

    Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee participated in the programme, which ended in March 2011.

  • Co-commissioning

    The process by which different funders agree to pool or align resources in order to deliver common outputs in relation to employability.

  • Co-location

    Different partners providing a range of services from a single location for the benefit of service users. It also results in improvements in the way partners work together.

    Please see the DWP Youth Hub article for an example of how this model is being used in Glasgow.

  • Co-production

    This is a process where service users work alongside professionals as partners in the design and delivery of services.

    It is said that the term 'co-production' was coined originally at the University of Indiana in the 1970s when Professor Elinor Ostrom was asked to explain to the Chicago police why the crime rate went up when the police came off the beat and into patrol cars. She used the term as a way of explaining why the police need the community as much as the community need the police.

  • Community Benefit Clauses

    Community benefit clauses provide a means of achieving sustainability in public contracts. They include targeted recruitment and training, small business and social enterprise development and community engagement. For further information please visit the Scottish Government website.

    Toolkits and resources for using Community Benefit Clauses can be found within the Linking Opportunity and Need section of this site.

  • Community Planning

    Community Planning is a process which helps public agencies to work together with the community to plan and deliver services which make a real difference to people's lives.

    The aims of Community Planning in Scotland are to make sure people and communities are genuinely engaged in the decisions made on public services which affect them; allied to a commitment from organisations to work together, not apart, in providing better public services.

    For further information please visit the Scottish Government website.

  • Community Planning Partnerships (CPP's)

    Community Planning Partnerships provide a local framework for initiatives and partnerships in the field of economic development and community servcies.

    All councils have established a community planning partnership (CPP) to lead and manage community planning in their area. CPPs are not statutory committees of a council, or public bodies in their own right. They do not directly employ staff or deliver public services.

    The structure of CPPs and the areas they cover vary considerably, depending on the size and geography of the council area, socio-demographic factors, the local economy and local political priorities.

    CPPs are required to engage with communities, report on progress, and publish information on how they have implemented their duties and how outcomes have improved as a result.

    For further information please visit the Scottish Government website.

  • Concordat

    The relationship between the Scottish Government and local government changed fundamentally on 14 November 2007 with the signing of the Concordat which sets out the terms of the new relationship between central and local government based on mutual respect and partnership.

    The Concordat recognises that it is the responsibility of each local authority to allocate the total financial resources available to it (excluding ring-fenced resources) on the basis of local needs and priorities having first fulfilled its statutory obligations and the jointly agreed set of national and local priorities including the Scottish Government's key strategic objectives.

  • Condition Management

    Provision involving health professionals who provide advice to clients on managing their health conditions to facilitate re-entry to the labour market.

  • Consortium

    This is a method by which smaller organisations can come together to bid for or deliver employability contracts.

    It may become more important as employability services are contracted out in larger areas and larger amounts for longer periods of time.

  • Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (CoSLA)

    COSLA, the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, is the representative voice of Scottish local government and also acts as the employers' association on behalf of all 32 Scottish Councils.

    For further information please visit the CoSLA website.

  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

    A concept whereby organisations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders as well as the environment.

    This obligation is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees organisations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for employees and their families as well as for the local community and society at large.

  • Data Zone

    Data Zones are small areas of between 500 and 1000 residents identified for the purpose of statistical comparison.

    Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics and the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation provides information at the data zone level and they can be used to direct employability funding and service delivery.

  • Demand-led

    Employment-related services and initiatives which respond to the needs of employers.

  • Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)

    DWP are the UK department responsible for benefit payments, employment servcies and welfare to work policies.

    DWP is responsible for welfare and pension policy and is a key player in tackling child poverty. It is the biggest public service delivery department in the UK and serves over 20 million customers.    

    For further information please visit the DWP website.     

  • Distance Travelled

    This is a method of measuring a client's progress towards employability when few hard outcomes (such as qualifications) have been achieved.

    For further information on measuring outcomes please visit the Toolkits section of the website.

  • Economically Inactive

    This term is used to describe those who want to work, but are either not looking for, or not available for, work (e.g. looking after the family and home, or those who are long-term sick or disabled).

    This includes those who are claiming 'inactive benefits' such as Incapacity Benefit, Employment Support Allowance, Income Support, etc.

  • Employability

    Employability covers all the factors that enable people to increase their chances of getting a job, staying in work and progressing further in their job.

    The Scottish Government definition is 'the combination of factors and processes which enable people to progress towards employment, to stay in employment and to move on in the workplace'.

  • Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)

    From 27 October 2008 Employment and Support Allowance replaced Incapacity Benefit and Income Support paid on incapacity grounds for new customers.

    This allowance offers financial help and personalised support for individuals who are not able to work due to a health condition or disability. ESA builds on the Pathways to Work scheme, which helped individuals with a health condition or disability move into work, if possible.

    For futher information please visit the DWP website.

  • Hard Outcomes

    This term is used to describe outcomes such as job entry or qualifications which can be objectively quantified. The success of employability schemes is often assessed by such measures.

  • Health and Employability Delivery Group (HEDG)

    The Health and Employability Delivery Group (HEDG) was established following discussions with NHS health managers, who identified that there was a gap in the way health managers received information regarding employability and in how they linked to employability structures.

    The review of the Healthy Working Lives strategy, Health Works (November 2009) gave added impetus for the need for such a group where work is recognised as a key determinant of health.

    The HEDG was established in December 2009 and is attended by NHS health managers from across Scotland whose remit includes employability activities.

    For further information and meeting papers please visit the HEDG section of the website.

  • Job coaching

    Job coaching involves one to one support, generally for people with disabilities, to return to work.

    Job coaches provide support to the individual and the employer to ensure that the transition to work is as easy as possible for both parties and that any barriers or issues are quickly identified and overcome.

  • Jobcentre Plus

    Jobcentre Plus is a brand formerly used by the Department for Work and Pensions for its working-age support service in the United Kingdom, although (as of 4 October 2011) this name is being phased out and reverting to the Department for Work and Pensions.

  • Jobseekers Allowance

    Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) provides support  to help individuals while they look for work. How much an individual gest depends on their circumstances and the type of JSA they qualify for.

    To qualify for JSA you usually have to be 18 or over (but below State Pension age) and able and available for work.

    When you apply for JSA, you must go to an interview to complete
    your claim. To keep getting JSA you must go to a Jobcentre office (usually every 2 weeks or when asked) to show how you've been searching for a job. This is known as 'signing on'.

    For further information please visit the DWP website.

  • Leitch Review

    The Leitch Review of Skills was an independent review by Lord Sandy Leitch, the Chairman of the National Employment Panel, commissioned by the British Government in 2004, 'to identify the UK's optimal skills mix for 2020 to maximise economic growth, productivity and social justice, set out the balance of responsibility for achieving that skills profile and consider the policy framework required to support it.'

    The final report, published at the end of 2006 recommended that UK should urgently and dramatically raise achievements at all levels of skills and recommended that it commit to becoming a world leader in skills by 2020, as benchmarked against the upper quartile of the OECD - effectively a doubling of attainment at most skill levels



  • Literacy

    The ability to read, write and use numbers, to handle opinions, make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and life long learners.

  • Local Employability Partnerships

    Each Local Authority area in Scotland has a local employability partnership (LEP) to help drive the employability agenda forward at a local level.

    Partnerships vary in membership but often include representatives from: Local Authorities, Jobcentre Plus (JCP), Skills Development Scotland (SDS), local colleges, the Third Sector and the NHS.  The groups sit firmly within the Community Planning Framework.

    Further information can be found on the Local Employability Partnership section of this website.

  • More Choices More Chances (MCMC)

    The NEET Strategy, More Choices, More Chances is an action plan to reduce the proportion of young people not in education employment or training in Scotland.

  • National Delivery Group

    The National Delivery Group (NDG) was established in response to requests from local employability practitioners and managers seeking to come together to share information.

    The Group has been in existence since September 2006 and is attended by employability lead officials and their partners. Typically these leads are from Local Authorities who lead the employability agenda locally and fit this within their CPP structures.

    National organisations with an interest in employability, for example Jobcentre Plus and Skills Development Scotland, also attend the group which is chaired by Prof. Alan McGregor from Glasgow University and meets quarterly.

    For further information please visit the NDG section of the website.

  • NEET

    The cohort of young people aged 15 - 19 who are Not in Education, Employment or Training.

    This group of young people are now more commonly referred to as More Choices More Chances (MCMC).

  • Personalisation

    The provision of information or services that are specifically tailored to meet the needs of the individual.

  • Practitioner

    Paid employee who is involved directly in the operational management or delivery of a project or service which engages in some way with clients of employability provision.

  • Priority client

    Individuals who are a particular focus for initiatives aimed at improving employability and increasing employment rates.

    This often includes unemployed claimant, workless individuals and those who face particular barriers to finding and sustaining work, such as people with health issues and ex-offenders.

    For further information please visit the Key Clients section of the website.

  • Progressive employment

    'Progressive' employment is a relatively new concept, which says that people must not only be assisted in accessing and sustain employment, but should also be helped to progress within that work as their on-the-job skills grow or as further training is completed.

  • Scottish Employability Forum (SEF)

    The Scottish Employability Forum aims to provide a single Forum where all tiers of Government can come together, with key stakeholders and delivery bodies, in order to address unemployment within the context of economic recovery.

    The SEF is jointly chaired by Scottish, UK and local Government. 

    For further information please visit the Scottish Employability Forum section of the website.

  • Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD)

    The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation identifies small area concentrations of multiple deprivation across all of Scotland in a consistent way. It allows effective targeting of policies and funding where the aim is to wholly or partly tackle or take account of area concentrations of multiple deprivation.

    The SIMD ranks small areas (called datazones) from most deprived - ranked 1 - to least deprived - ranked 6,505. People using the SIMD will often focus on the datazones below a certain rank. For example, the 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% most deprived datazones in Scotland.

  • Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics (SNS)

    Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics is the Scottish Government's on-going programme to improve the availability, consistency and accessibility of small area statistics in Scotland.

    SNS provides local level data on topics including unemployment, poverty, health, education, housing, population, crime and social or community issues.

  • Service Delivery Partners

    The range of organisations involved in the provision of projects or services. In employability this might include training providers, specialist support services, housing services and the health sector.

  • Single Outcome Agreements (SOA’s)

    The purpose of the Single Outcome Agreement is to identify areas for improvement and to deliver better outcomes for the people of Scotland, through specific commitments made by the Council, its community planning partners and the Scottish Government.

  • Skills Development Scotland

    Skills Development Scotland (SDS) is the national skills body, supporting the people and businesses of Scotland to develop and apply their skills.

    SDS were formed in 2008 as a non-departmental public body, bringing together careers, skills, training and funding services.

    SDS play a key role in driving the success of Scotland's economic future, working with partners to:

    • Support individuals to reach their potential
    • Help make skills work for employers
    • Improve the skills and learning system

    For further information please visit the Skills Development Scotland website.

  • Soft Indicators

    Soft Indicators are factors such as improved time keeping and communication skills, which indicate the achievement of soft outcomes. hey often support subjective assessment of soft outcomes.

    For further information please visit the Measuring Soft Outcomes section of the website.

  • Soft Outcomes

    This refers to outcomes from employability interventions, which cannot be measured directly, including achievements in self-confidence, personal relationships and life skills.

    For further information please visit the Measuring Soft Outcomes section of the website. 

  • Stakeholder

    Individuals or organisations who have an active interest or a stake in a particular issue. In employability, this could include funders, policy makers, service delivery partners, individuals, health professionals, etc.

  • Strategic Skills Pipeline

    A key element of Workforce Plus was the recognition that people enter the labour market at different stages along a 'pipeline' and that this should inform policy direction and operational delivery.

    It enables all of those who plan and develop services at a national or local level to determine where duplication and gaps exist, to address those against an easily understood common definition and to ensure that at each stage clients are progressing toward sustained employment.

  • Supply chain

    An integrated network of partners who provide the range of services and support to enable an individual move into and sustain employment.

  • Sustained Employment

    Supporting people to stay in work and advance.

  • Target Group

    This refers to groups of individuals or sections of the community which are the focus of particular activity and who are expected to benefit from those activities.

    For further information please visit the Key Clients section of the website.

  • Third Sector Employability Forum (TSEF)

    Supported by the Scottish Government the TSEF works to develop the capacity of the sector in relation to both policy development and the delivery of employability services funded by the Scottish and UK Governments.

    There are an estimated 400 third sector organisations active in the employability agenda in Scotland and the Forum's priorities and activities are directed by this community.

    The TSEF feeds into and works with the Scottish Employability Forum and National Delivery Group.

    For further information please visit the TSEF section of the webiste.

  • Universal Credit

    Universal Credit is a new welfare benefit in the United Kingdom that will replace six of the main means-tested benefits and tax credits. The UK Government plans to introduce the Universal Credit over the period 2013 to 2017. A pilot in four English local authorities was scheduled to precede the national launch of the scheme in October 2013 for new claimants (excluding more complex cases such as families with children), with a gradual transition to be complete by 2017.

  • Work Choice

    Work Choice is a Government supported employment programme designed specifically for people who due to their disability, may find it difficult to find or keep a job.

    Work Choice enables people to find and retain work by identifying their needs and providing the necessary support to fit their requirements. It is often the stepping stone into full unsupported employment for many people.

  • Work Programme

    The Work Programme provides personalised support for claimants who need more help looking for and staying in work. Service providers have freedom to decide how best to support Work Programme participants while meeting minimum standards for delivering the service.

  • Workforce Plus

    The original Employability Framework for Scotland, published in 2006, which set out actions at the national and local levels to help more people get back into work.

    This was subsequently refreshed in 2012 and called Working for Growth.

  • Working for Growth

    Working for Growth (2012) is a refresh of the original employability framework for Scotland, Workforce Plus.

    The refreshed framework recognises that Workforce Plus was published at a time when there was an assumption of continued growth in employment at a Scottish, UK and European level. This assumption has proven false and it is in an environment of slow economic growth and higher levels of unemployment that the refreshed framework considers what more can be done to support those out of work within the wider context of Scotland's economic recovery.

    In updating Scotland's Employability Framework, Scottish Government have taken account of both the Christie Commission on the Future Delivery of Public Services in Scotland and the Government's subsequent response.

  • Worklessness

    A term that is wider than "unemployment" which is used to describe those without work and those who are out of work but would like a job.

    Definitions of worklessness include: unemployed claimants; those who are out of work but who are actively looking for a job; and those who are economically inactive, e.g. those with family or caring commitments.